Document Type


Publication Date



College students from minority groups in the United States, Canada, and Tanzania were asked how they could be helped to learn effectively in a university mainstream culture. Eleven groups of undergraduate students and six groups of graduate students were involved in the study over 7 years, with the number of students per group ranging from 11 and 25 at the undergraduate level and between 7 and 29 at the graduate level. Five groups were studied in Tanzania in 1993, 2 in Canada in 1994 and 1995, and 10 in the United States between 1996 and 2000. Content analysis of the data indicated that students were interacting with unique sets of factors culturally, financially, linguistically, socially, psychologically, and emotionally in ways that affected their academic functioning directly and indirectly. Several strategies emerged from all three countries as ways to facilitate effective learning among minority students from diverse backgrounds. Seeking information from students helped indicate how best to approach classroom learning activities. Open and unbiased discussions in class, writing exercises, action research, personal histories and experiences, and other ways that acknowledge students' differences were found to be invaluable tools for facilitating effective learning among the minority students.


The article available for download here is the publisher version.

Publication Title

Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)

Included in

Education Commons