Date of Award


Document Type



Global Studies

First Advisor

Tina M. Villa

Second Advisor

William Stone


The broad diversity of students learning English as a second language (ESL) has led to inadequate ESL programs among elementary, middle, and high school students in public school systems in the United States. Examined in the paper are the three main types of ESL instruction methods: English-only immersion, bilingual English, and sheltered English instruction. While there has been ample research on the various ESL programs, there has not been as much research on exactly how these programs affect the development of English for both ELL students who are born in the United States and those who immigrated to the United States. ESL instruction methods are highly debated due to the diversity of students who are considered to be English language learners. One of the biggest issues in question is how to design English as a second language curriculum in order to best suit a greater number of English language learners. This research effectively highlights why a specific ESL program works in a particular academic setting, and why the other ESL programs do not.